[37] Old Russian folklore takes its roots in the pagan Slavic religion. [91] In 1992, most consumer price controls were eliminated, causing extreme inflation and significantly devaluing the Ruble. About 146.7 million people live in Russia according to the 2019 census. ", the rebels threatened to take Moscow until Catherine crushed the rebellion. Typically, major Russian cities have well-developed systems of public transport, with the most common varieties of exploited vehicles being bus, trolleybus and tram. The first modern state in Russia was founded in 862 by King Rurik of the Rus, who was made the ruler of Novgorod. The cohesion of the Russian Federation was also threatened when the republic of Chechnya attempted to break away, leading to the First and Second Chechen Wars. [71], The death of Ivan's childless son Feodor was followed by a period of civil wars and foreign intervention known as the "Time of Troubles" (1606–13). He formed the Holy Alliance with Austria and Prussia, to suppress revolutionary movements in Europe that he saw as immoral threats to legitimate Christian monarchs. [362], The Russian Constitution guarantees free, universal health care for all its citizens. "Ivan Grozny", M, 2001, pp.222–223. [139] One after another, prominent officials were shot or killed by bombs. The coastal part of Krasnodar Krai on the Black Sea, most notably in Sochi, possesses a humid subtropical climate with mild and wet winters. [231] Russia's international tourism receipts in 2018 amounted to $11.6 billion. Many foreigners worked in Russia for a long time, like Leonard Euler and Alfred Nobel. In 2015, Russia main exports are oil and natural gas (62.8% of total exports), ores and metals (5.9%), chemical products (5.8%), machinery and transport equipment (5.4%) and food (4.7%). Boris Godunov's (Борис Годунов) reign ended in chaos, civil war combined with foreign intrusion, devastation of many cities and depopulation of the rural regions. Russian cuisine widely uses fish, caviar, poultry, mushrooms, berries, and honey. The most renowned railway in Russia is Trans-Siberian (Transsib), spanning a record seven time zones and serving the longest single continuous services in the world, Moscow-Vladivostok (9,259 km (5,753 mi)), Moscow–Pyongyang (10,267 km (6,380 mi))[249] and Kyiv–Vladivostok (11,085 km (6,888 mi)). [citation needed]. [140] It is mandatory for all male citizens aged 18–27 to be drafted for a year of service in Armed Forces. After many behind-the-scenes maneuvers, the soviets seized control of the government in November 1917 and drove Kerensky and his moderate provisional government into exile, in the events that would become known as the October Revolution. Firestone, Thomas. [188] The Soviets supported the republicans of Spain who struggled against fascist German and Italian troops in the Spanish Civil War. "History of Russia...", v.7, pp.533–535, pp.543–568. By 1915, many soldiers were sent to the front unarmed, and told to pick up whatever weapons they could from the battlefield. [76] During this war, which included many of the most lethal battle operations in human history, Soviet civilian and military death were about 27 million,[77][78] accounting for about a third of all World War II casualties. Pirozhki, blini and syrniki are native types of pancakes. Under Stalin's leadership, the government launched a command economy, industrialization of the largely rural country, and collectivization of its agriculture. Imports in Russia is reported by the Central Bank of Russia. 2017. г., No. [47] The Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth occupied parts of Russia, including Moscow. Multiple war memorials, marked by a great restrained solemnity, were built throughout the country. [170] The continental interiors are the driest areas. [33], Galicia-Volhynia was eventually assimilated by the Kingdom of Poland, while the Mongol-dominated Vladimir-Suzdal and Novgorod Republic, two regions on the periphery of Kiev, established the basis for the modern Russian nation. In 1803–1806, the first Russian circumnavigation was made, later followed by other notable Russian sea exploration voyages. [68], The Appeasement policy of Great Britain and France towards Adolf Hitler's annexation of Austria and Czechoslovakia did not stem an increase in the power of Nazi Germany. [32] The invading Mongol elite, together with their conquered Turkic subjects (Cumans, Kipchaks, Bulgars), became known as Tatars, forming the state of the Golden Horde, which pillaged the Russian principalities; the Mongols ruled the Cuman-Kipchak confederation and Volga Bulgaria (modern-day southern and central expanses of Russia) for over two centuries. Were there vikings who migrated to russia and lived there and intermarried with the eastern savs? [50] The tsar's army finally crushed his forces in 1670; a year later Stenka was captured and beheaded. This page was last edited on 11 December 2020, at 08:19. Since then, there have been four presidencies split between three presidents (Vladimir Putin being the second presi… [120][121] Vissarion Belinsky (1811–1848),[122] and Alexander Herzen (1812–1870) were prominent Westernizers. Peter told the senate that its mission was to collect tax revenues. Baykov, Alexander. In 1859, there were 23 million serfs (out of a total population of 67.1 Million). The Russian Federation spans 11 time zones. The Finnish Bronze Age started in approximately 1,500 BC and the Iron Age started in 500 BC and lasted until 1,300 AD. Том 1", "Оценка численности постоянного населения на 1 января 2020 года и в среднем за 2019 год", "Total Fertility Rate around the world over the last centuries", "Demographic balance and crude rates at national level", "Mapped: Which country has the most immigrants? Strong opposition soon developed. These subjects have equal representation—two delegates each—in the Federation Council. This page includes a chart with historical data for Russia balance of trade. Following his short reign, Catherine's strategy was continued with Alexander I's (1801–25) wresting of Finland from the weakened kingdom of Sweden in 1809 and of Bessarabia from the Ottomans in 1812. Since the turn of the 21st century, higher domestic consumption and greater political stability have bolstered economic growth in Russia. The principality's prestige was further enhanced when it became the center of the Russian Orthodox Church. Association football is one of the most popular sports in modern Russia. [216], Russia is the fourth largest electricity producer in the world,[217] and the 9th largest renewable energy producer in 2019. [153] More than two million refugees fled. Translations into other languages often do not distinguish these two groups. The freed peasants had to buy land, allotted to them, from the landowners with the state assistance. Well-situated in the central river system of Russia and surrounded by protective forests and marshes, Moscow was at first only a vassal of Vladimir, but soon it absorbed its parent state. [133], In the late 1870s Russia and the Ottoman Empire again clashed in the Balkans. The Soviet Union was also a major producer of science fiction, written by authors like Arkady and Boris Strugatsky, Kir Bulychov, Alexander Belayev and Ivan Yefremov. [33] This was because Church Slavonic was used directly in liturgy instead.[43]. Pg. [389][page needed] It continued with the poetry of Mikhail Lermontov and Nikolay Nekrasov, dramas of Alexander Ostrovsky and Anton Chekhov, and the prose of Nikolai Gogol and Ivan Turgenev. The Russian national football team reached the semi-finals of Euro 2008, losing only to the eventual champions Spain. One is "русские" (russkiye), which most often means "ethnic Russians". [256], In 2019 Russia spent approximately 422 billion rubles on domestic research and development, of which 60-70% was provided by the federal government. Dziga Vertov, whose kino-glaz ("film-eye") theory—that the camera, like the human eye, is best used to explore real life—had a huge impact on the development of documentary film making and cinema realism. As the free settlers of South Russia, the Cossacks, reacted against the growing centralization of the state, serfs escaped from their landlords and joined the rebels. After the partition of Poland in 1939, the NKVD executed 20,000 captured Polish officers in the Katyn massacre. 1–16)", "Конституция Республики Бурятия (принята Верховным Советом Республики Бурятия 22 февраля 1994 г.) The cavalry horses, for example, were only trained in parade formations, and did poorly in battle. Peter still lacked a secure northern seaport except at Archangel on the White Sea, whose harbor was frozen nine months a year. Agriculture accounts for the remaining 2%. [234] From 1999 to 2009, Russia's agriculture grew steadily,[235] and the country turned from a grain importer to the third largest grain exporter after the EU and the United States. One source asserts that the total number of victims of repression and pacification campaigns could be 1.3 million,[165] whereas others give estimates ranging from 10,000 in the initial period of repression[166] to 50,000[167] to 140,000[167][168] and an estimate of 28,000 executions per year from December 1917 to February 1922. At the same time the Allied powers sent several expeditionary armies to support the anti-Communist forces in an attempt to force Russia to rejoin the world war. The period from the consolidation of the Bolshevik Revolution in 1917 until 1921 is known as the period of war communism. Within services the most important segments are: wholesale and retail trade, repair of motor vehicles, motorcycles and personal and household goods (17% of total GDP); public administration, health and education (12%); real estate (9%) and transport storage and communications (7%). Both sides regularly committed brutal atrocities against civilians. [118], Westernizers formed an intellectual movement that deplored the backwardness of Russian culture, and looked to western Europe for intellectual leadership. For example, one individual had been a professional chauffeur in Moscow, who had been sentenced to seven years of … In 1648, the peasants of Ukraine joined the Zaporozhian Cossacks in rebellion against Poland-Lithuania during the Khmelnytsky Uprising in reaction to the social and religious oppression they had been suffering under Polish rule. Following the world economic crisis of 2008 and a subsequent drop in oil prices, Russia's economy stagnated and poverty again started to rise[97] until 2017 when, after the prolonged recession, Russia's economy began to grow again, supported by stronger global growth, higher oil prices, and solid macro fundamentals. [408] The Soviet national team reached the finals of Euro 1988. The tsar refused to cooperate with the national legislature, the Duma, and listened less to experts than to his wife, who was in thrall to her chief advisor, the so-called holy man Grigori Rasputin. The region adopted Christianity in 988 by the official act of public baptism of Kiev inhabitants by Prince Vladimir I, who followed the private conversion of his grandmother. 3. / Глава 1. 75% of foreign direct investment (FDI) stocks in Russia come from the EU. Russian biologists include Dmitry Ivanovsky who discovered viruses, Ivan Pavlov who was the first to experiment with the classical conditioning, and Ilya Mechnikov who was a pioneer researcher of the immune system and probiotics. The Allied powers launched an unsuccessful military intervention in support of anti-Communist forces. The Silver Age was dominated by the artistic movements of Russian Symbolism, Acmeism, and Russian Futurism, many poetic schools flourished, including the Mystical Anarchism tendency within the Symbolist movement. The Sleepwalkers: How Europe Went to War in 1914. [158], In July, following a series of crises that undermined their authority with the public, the head of the Provisional Government resigned and was succeeded by Alexander Kerensky, who was more progressive than his predecessor but not radical enough for the Bolsheviks or many Russians discontented with the deepening economic crisis and the continuation of the war. [citation needed] In a remarkable reversal of fortunes, he gained election as chairman of the Russian republic's new Supreme Soviet in May 1990. The two most widely separated points in Russia are about 8,000 km (4,971 mi) apart along a geodesic line. Peter the Great died in 1725, leaving an unsettled succession, but Russia had become a great power by the end of his reign. [citation needed], In the 18th century, during the era of Russian Enlightenment, the development of Russian literature was boosted by the works of Mikhail Lomonosov and Denis Fonvizin. Moscow is the country's capital and largest city, other major cities include Saint Petersburg, Novosibirsk, Yekaterinburg, Kazan, Nizhny Novgorod, Chelyabinsk and Samara. At the archaeological site Bogatyri/Sinyaya Balka in the skull Elasmotherium caucasicum, which lived 1,5-1,2 million years ago, a stone tool was found. According to the Constitution, the country comprises eighty-five federal subjects,[156] including the disputed Republic of Crimea and federal city of Sevastopol. In August 1939, as attempts to form an anti-Nazi military alliance with Britain and France failed, the Soviet government signed the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact with Nazi Germany, pledging non-aggression between the two countries and secretly dividing Eastern Europe into their respective spheres of influence. The Romanov Dynasty acceded to the throne in 1613 by the decision of Zemsky Sobor, and the country started its gradual recovery from the crisis. Another is "россияне" (rossiyane), which means "citizens of Russia, regardless of ethnicity". He called on Russia to emulate Western Europe, especially in rational and logical thought, its progressive spirit, its leadership in science, and indeed its leadership on the path to freedom. Bandy, also known as Russian hockey, is another traditionally popular ice sport. [158] However, they differ in the degree of autonomy they enjoy. Between 1847 and 1851, about one million people died of Asiatic cholera.[53]. In the early 19th century, Alaska was used as a base for the First Russian circumnavigation. Topolski, Jerzy. At about the 2nd century AD Goths migrated to the Black Sea, and in the 3rd and 4th centuries AD, a semi-legendary Gothic kingdom of Oium existed in Southern Russia until it was overrun by Huns. In addition, middle-class urban tradesmen and craftsmen were assessed taxes, and, like the serfs, they were forbidden to change residence. The USSR was successful in the space program, launching the first man into space. Soviet animators developed a great variety of pioneering techniques and aesthetic styles, with prominent directors including Ivan Ivanov-Vano, Fyodor Khitruk and Aleksandr Tatarsky. [67] While persecution accelerated following Stalin's rise to power, a revival of Orthodoxy was fostered by the government during World War II and the Soviet authorities sought to control the Russian Orthodox Church rather than liquidate it. 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