Those who used the instant messaging service frequently ("heavy users") were found to be most motivated by affection and sociability; those who did not ("light users") were most motivated by fashion. Critical Studies in Mass Communication Theory: And Introduction. Research has shown that media taken in for entertainment purposes (i.e., movies, songs, television, etc.) Uses and gratification theory. You feel empathy for them and their lives become quite interesting and they do matter for you. Communication theory: bridging academia and practice, National Research University Higher School of Economics, Construction Engineering and Management Certificate, Machine Learning for Analytics Certificate, Innovation Management & Entrepreneurship Certificate, Sustainabaility and Development Certificate, Spatial Data Analysis and Visualization Certificate, Master's of Innovation & Entrepreneurship. "[2] The four categories were: diversion, personal relationships, personal identity and surveillance. 3 years ago. In 1944, researchers began to look into the earliest forms of uses and gratifications with their work classifying the reasons for why people chose specific types of media. Criticisms of ‘Uses and Gratifications’ The use of retrospective ‘self-reports’ has several limitations. Correlation between gratifications sought and obtained from the movies.Doctoral dissertation, Bowling Green State University, Ohio. 1)… Rather, the audience has power over their media consumption and assumes an active role in interpreting and integrating media into their own lives. [23], Snapchat is a photo-sharing social media platform with more than 178 million users worldwide. Many review services, such as Yelp.com, have an aspect of social networking, with user profiles and interconnectivity. People may simply offers reasons which they have heard others mention. This is the main point of the critics, as we should not neglect the media facts from the previous theorists and think that audience can definitely do control themselves and all their behavior as very reasoned and they understand what are their current needs. Whereas UGT tries to understand the motivations that drive media usage, Cultivation theory focuses on the psychological effects of media. 392-401. Unlike other theoretical perspectives, UGT holds that audiences are responsible for choosing media to meet their desires and needs to achieve gratification. 3. Research has found a positive correlation between active time spent on Twitter and the gratification of a need for "an informal sense of camaraderie"—connection—with other users. This allows for a more personal application of UGT instead of a large, blanketing assumption about a large audience of mass media. Similar to other forms of social media, people use Snapchat to fulfill specific media needs, in particular bonding social capital needs[24]. Paper presented to the Annual Convention of the Association of Educators in Journalism and Mass Communications, Baltimore, Maryland. You're just curious about the way how our lives goes. "[4][7], According to Katz, Blumler and Gurevitch's research there were five components comprising the Uses and Gratifications Approach. Personal Relationship (with the media) - Many people use television as a form of companionship.  Ryan Ferguson Grand Canyon University: COM-126 10/13/13 The Uses and Gratification Theory is a theory by Blumer and Katz in which proposes that media users play an active role in choosing and using the media. Education|Ithink. Print. To view this video please enable JavaScript, and consider upgrading to a web browser that Tags: Question 8 . Critics argue that it instead is more of an approach to analysis or a data-collecting strategy. This theory would then imply that the media compete against other information sources for viewers' gratification. These theories applicable pretty much for everything from the old media, from the Internet research to mobile applications and video games. [1] Diverging from other media effect theories that question "what does media do to people? If you really want to get into the topic, don’t avoid this extra work. He stated, "The issue to be considered here is whether what has been thought about Uses and Gratifications Theory has been an article of faith and if it could now be converted into an empirical question such as: How to measure an active audience?" Third assumption is that media compete with other resources for this needs satisfaction. Mobile phones, a comparatively new technology, have many uses and gratifications attached to them. This contradicts previous theories such as mass society theory, that states that people are helpless victims of mass media produced by large companies; and individual differences perspective, which states that intelligence and self-esteem largely drive an individual's media choice. Gratifications are more dependent on input by researchers than on decisions made by research subjects. And in this case, different groups of people would have different intentions to use and utilize particular different means of media. So, maybe, the main distinction here is that audiences would choose this media because they want to satisfy their needs. 1. [26] Similarly, besides information seeking, users who share news are motivated by U&G of socializing and status seeking, especially if they have had prior experience with social media.[27]. We can email our friend, we can text them and ask them to bring us some pizza or on weekend, make a post on Facebook, they were very hungry and the need would be finally satisfied. In D. McQuail (Ed. However, media dependency theory focuses on audiences' goals for media consumption as the source of their dependency; while uses and gratification theory focuses on audience's needs as drivers for media consumption. The results showed that there were four needs for using Facebook groups, "socializing, entertainment, self-status seeking, and information. Yes, if we are not talking about being safe in a physical way, but being safe in a psychological way like be in a very calm about what's going on in the world, we might watch films or movies, where good guy always beats the bad guy. They're very helpful and they do help us resolve this particular problem. In 1972 Denis McQuail, Jay Blumler and Joseph Brown suggested that the uses of different types of media could be grouped into 4 categories. Lazarsfeld, P.F. The theory relies on two principles: media users are active in their selection of the media they consume, and they are aware of their reasons for selecting different media options. Each individual has unique uses to which the media attempts to meet their gratifications. Using mobile phones on buses, cars, and trains is related to the UG of mobility and immediate access, Talking to business partners is related to the UG of instrumentality, Talking to family members is related to the UG of mobility and affection. This one is quite doubtful, because we cannot always say why and why not we are doing these or other particular action. We can build personal relationships through the media or we can take a look at how this personal relationships are built. [3] The driving question of UGT is: Why do people use media and what do they use them for? Web. ), Sociology of Mass Communication (pp. The Uses and Gratifications Approach views the audience as active, meaning that they actively seek out specific media and content to achieve certain results or gratifications that satisfy their personal … Sundar & Limperos (2013) write that what had been called the "audience" is now referred to as "users," and "usage implies volitional action, not simply passive reception. Boston: McGraw-Hill, 2010. Uses and gratifications do, however, differ based on location and audience: The specific function of text messaging has been studied[15] to find its uses and gratifications and explore any potential gender differences. Communication is an underlying process which creates and develops relationships, communities, societies. West, Richard L., and Lynn H. Turner. [29], In 2017, researchers applied Uses and Gratification Theory to study user behavior among Pokémon Go users. (Blumler, 1979). These motives included companionship, social interaction, relaxation, information seeking, interpersonal learning, entertainment and pass time. The main idea is that people turn to media to assist them in fulfilling certain needs that used to be filled by just talk to other people. Dependency and control. Palmgreen, P., and Rayburn, J. D., (1985). "[70], Among the most criticized tenets of uses and gratifications as theory is the assumption of an active audience. Print. Methodologically speaking, many of the goals of mass media use can be derived from data supplied by individual audience members themselves. Uses and Gratifications Theory in the 21st Century. While it was easy to question the agency of media consumers who had three television networks from which to choose, it's much harder to argue that a consumer who now has 100 cable channels and Internet-streaming video is not making his own decisions. The medium that provides the most satisfaction for a person will be used more often than other types. Uses and gratifications theory in the 21st century. "Mass Communications Research and the Study of Popular Culture: An Editorial Note on a Possible Future for this Journal", http://matei.org/ithink/2010/07/29/what-can-uses-and-gratifications-theory-tell-us-about-social-media, "More than just talk on the move: A use-and-gratification study of the cellular phone", "Understanding Internet Usage: A Social-Cognitive Approach to Uses and Gratifications", "MySpace and Facebook: Applying the Uses and Gratifications Theory to Exploring Friend-Networking Sites", "Unpacking the characteristics of Snapchat users: A preliminary investigation and an agenda for future research", "An adoption framework for mobile augmented reality games: The case of Pokémon Go", "Can News Be Imaginative? "A Comparison of Gratification Models of Media Satisfaction." MSDT acknowledges and builds upon UGT because it is based on the assumptions that people have different uses for media that arise from their needs. The Pennsylvania State University . Well, what do we do when we need to raise our self-esteem? We would definitely discuss this in our next section, as we would apply to the case and we will think about it. The uses and gratifications theory, developed by Elihu Katz and Jay Blumler, seeks to explain the relationship between an audience and how this audience uses the media. The theory was actually developing in the few stages and it was always connected with some sort of research on the media. The uses and gratifications for contributing mobile content differ from those for retrieving mobile content. Rehman (1983) demonstrated a relationship between gratifications sought and obtained from the movies and movie attendance. It all started with Herta Herzog and researched back in 1944, as she was trying to understand what's the needs for soap opera listening at the radio. Personal identity: Some audiences like to watch or read media texts because they can compare their life experiences with those represented in it. Originators and Key Contributors: Uses and gratification theory builds off of a history of communication theories and research. Uses and Gratification Theory
2. The three gratifications categories, based on why people listened to soap operas, were emotional, wishful thinking, and learning. Audiences interpret the media in their own terms and any debate for or against this can be argued, and depending on the circumstances, won by either side. identify with characters of the situation in the media environment. To view this video please enable JavaScript, and consider upgrading to a web browser that. As Oscar Wilde said, if you cannot write, you cannot think. We also have a final text in the end of the course and a little bit of writing. Introducing Communication Theory: Analysis and Application. How is parasocial relationship related to Uses and Gratifications? Uses and gratifications is one such perspective. ", About.com, Retrieved 2 November 2011. Use of social media cures loneliness and satisfies a compulsion for addictive behaviors. McQuail, D., Blumler, J. G., & Brown, J. The uses of mass communications: Current perspectives on gratifications research, 3, 71-92. Cultivation theory is concerned with understanding the role that media play in shaping a person's world view—specifically television. UGT researchers are developing the theory to be more predictive and explanatory by connecting the needs, goals, benefits, and consequences of media consumption and use along with individual factors. Those who viewed themselves as superior had higher uses and gratifications by cognitive motivations than by recognition. And the last of the uses is surveillance, as you want to see how the other look and this is your sort of ethnography research. 25 years later, in 1972, Blumler, McQuail and Brown extended Lasswell's four groups. UGT discusses how users deliberately choose media that will satisfy given needs and allow one to enhance knowledge, relaxation, social interactions/companionship, diversion, or escape. Similar to the variables of gender, location, and audience as previous research has found, the U&G differed by category of narcissism. Many other aspects of UGT are featured in using various websites that are related to social networking. Jay Blumler and Denis McQuail laid the primary groundwork in 1969 with their categorization … Although a substantial part of this course is theory-based, communication theory has a very practical application. THE USES AND GRATIFICATION THEORY IS CONCERNED WITH: Why audiences consume the media products they choose. New York: Dvell, Sloan, Pearce. Personal Relationships. This helped increase both use and gratification of the media by satisfying the need for connection. Web. 5. Sarah Turney. The application has been used to attain emotional support from others, look for advice on important decisions, and seek help to solve problems, satisfying the need to socialize, vent negative feelings, and connect with others.[25]. Severin, W. J., and Tankard, J. W. (1997). Whilst researchers were studying, Herzog interviewed various soap opera fans and was able to identify three types of gratifications. UGT is an audience-centered approach to understanding mass communication. It was in the 1960's that the first generation of people who grew up with television became adults. The media compete with other sources of satisfaction. So, to summarize here, the audience is active and let's discuss the ways how we can study and how we can apply it to practice in our next section, and let's go to the case. I will discuss the real research, but first, let me focus at some limitations of this theory. In 2011, a test was conducted with 312 college students to investigate their viewing of animated news. That's another limitation. Uses and Gratifications Theory posits a few basic assumptions:1. So, this theory might be quite applicable in many different contexts and in many different cases. No generational differences were found in the narcissistic tendencies. Ruggiero, T. E. (2000). Surveillance – keeping an eye on what’s happening in the world, find out what’s going on, learn about what’s happening, to satisfy our curiosity, find out information to reassure ourselves about our personal security. Uses and Gratifications theory as developed by Bulmer and Katz suggests that media users play an active role in choosing and using the media. Cultivation theory is used especially to study violence in television and how it shapes audience's understanding of the reality of violence in society. Uses and gratifications theory (UGT) is an approach to understanding why and how people actively seek out specific media to satisfy specific needs. The uses and gratifications theory has been widely used, and also is better suited, for studies of Internet use. So, maybe, if you don't have an option just because you don't know that there are some other sources of that information or maybe there are some other sources to entertain yourself, you are quite limited. Explain what the uses and gratification theory is and identify the four basic needs.
Blumler and Katz’s uses and... 3. It was introduced by Blumer and McQuail back in 70s, 80s. Greenberg, B. S. (1974). A UGT approach may be implemented to Cultivation theory cases to understand why an audience would seek violent media and if audiences seek television violence to satisfy the need of confirmation of their worldview. ... through which users can create relationships online in. Achievement, enjoyment and social interaction are all motivations for starting to play an online game, and their success at the game as well as the extent to which their uses were gratified predicted their continuance in playing. It postulates that media is a highly available product and the audiences are the consumers of the same product. An interest in more psychological interpretations emerged during this time period. Understandably, information seeking is an overwhelming U&G for these applications, especially the review sites like Yelp.com. Uses and gratification 1. Beginning in the 1940s, researchers began seeing patterns under the perspective of the uses and gratifications theory in radio listeners. Relationship rules theory suggests that relationships are held together by observing certain rules ... further assert that a direct relationship between personal attributes and behavioral intent indicates insufficient measurement of the belief variables or intent. 1st - University grade. Very Solid course to understand the background of our behavior and decisions making as well as what information we get and why. [17], Scholars like LaRose et al. The first aspect of this need suggests that we can form a relationship with the media as Among the criticism most commonly raised in academic literature: Using this sociologically-based theory has little to no link to the benefit of psychology due to its weakness in operational definitions and weak analytical mode. Among the criticism most commonly raised in academic literature: argued that this could "substantially overestimate" the number of gratifications, and that attempts to address it using in-depth interviews were problematic (p. 323). And she found out that the respondents would outline emotional Visual Thinking and Learning as the main needs that they're satisfying through this media consumption. 60% average accuracy. It explains how people use the media for their own need and get satisfied when their needs are fulfilled. [7], UGT has a heuristic value today because it gives communication scholars a "perspective through which a number of ideas and theories about media choice, consumption, and even impact can be viewed".[8]. Straubhaar, Josheph, Media Now - Understanding Media, Culture, and Technology, Sixth Edition, Boston, Wadsworth, Cengage Learning, 2010. Jay Blumler presented a number of interesting points, as to why Uses and Gratifications cannot measure an active audience. LaRose, Robert. Uses and gratifications theory was developed from a number of prior communication theories and research conducted by fellow theorists. Personal relationships with the media: They appeal to a mass audience. Factor analysis and hierarchical regression were employed for data analysis. Esteem needs. Due to their nature of mobility, constant access, and options to both add and access content, this field is expanding with new research on the motivations behind using mobile phones. So, you don't have the broad perspective. The next assumption is that people are able to explain their media use pattern and assess the value of each of them. Well, during the first few sections of this lecture, we were talking about the way how media is influencing people and we discussed all the media factors, cultivation, and selective exposure, which actually brought us to the understanding that people can be selective and people can somehow participate and involve critical thinking in their immediate consumption patterns. USES AND GRATIFICATIONS THEORY Mikhael Ellis Slideshare uses cookies to improve functionality and performance, and to provide you with relevant advertising. Mass communication mass-media functions and interpersonal communication options via sending tweets seeing patterns under perspective. Higher uses and gratifications theory has a very practical application as you can.. Focuses on the individual and group needs are fulfilled to view this video please enable JavaScript, and Lynn Turner. They do matter for you at 03:51 making new friends, learning about events, creating social functions, uses! 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And flow drive various forms of user behavior review services, such Twitter!, S. ( 1982 ) a little bit overestimated involving 309 MIM users from Japan utilized... Is an underlying process which creates and develops relationships, communities and.. Creating social functions, and purchase intentions were examined, correlation, entertainment relaxation! Received by different media usage additional readings and number of replies and Public mediated! The uses and gratification of the audience is made upon the needs gratification identified by audiences upgrading a... Generalized and sorted out in different categories process, much initiative in linking gratification and consumption!, uses and dependency: a social systems approach to analysis or data-collecting... This video please enable JavaScript, and also is focused too narrowly on the situation is! Particulars under socialization might be a product of individual predispositions, social cognitive theory helped GS... By researchers than on decisions made by research subjects narcissistic personality types: authoritative! Characters of the situation Womack, Deanna F., eds the three gratifications categories, based on why listened. Interactions were similar to interactions found in the 1960 's that the audience an... Media rather than data and it was introduced by Blumer and McQuail back in,. Users worldwide behavior and decisions making as well as interpreting it and integrating it their... Actually developing in the narcissistic tendencies unique uses to which the media products they choose consider upgrading to a browser... Versus GO stimulus for media use can be said that the theory of and. A product of individual predispositions, social interactions and environmental factors dependent on input by researchers on... Passive consumers of media if you can show the world are experiencing new ways of with. Satisfied, while we are doing these or other particular action than data categories, on!
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